Abstract: Region of provenance is defined as an area with uniform ecological conditions where stands with similar phenotypic or genetic features are found. This study assesses the effect of differing climate conditions of eight Spanish regions of provenance of Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. salzmannii on earlywood anatomical traits measured in samples from basal discs from mature trees. Results showed that variation of wood biometry between provenances was high, and more pronounced than intrapopulation variation. When comparing P. nigra with other Mediterranean pines, high intertracheid wall strength values are associated with better adaptation of pines to arid conditions. However, the intraspecific variations of this parameter in P. nigra did not follow the same pattern, due to the influence of mechanical support requirements.